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Patient Information

Orthopedic surgery

Hip or knee replacement surgery is usually necessary when the hip joint is worn or damaged so that your mobility is reduced and you are in pain even while resting.

The most common reason for a joint replacement surgery is osteoarthritis. Other conditions that can cause hip joint damage include:


A hip o knee replacement can be done under a general anaesthetic (where you're asleep during the operation) or under a spinal anaesthetic (where you're awake but have no feeling from the waist down). Sometimes you may have an epidural, which is similar to a spinal anaesthetic. The surgeon makes a cut (incision) into the hip or knee, removes the damaged joint and replaces it with an artificial joint or implant. The surgery usually takes around 1 to 2 hours to complete.


You'll usually be in hospital for 3 to 5 days, but recovery time can vary.

Once you're ready to be discharged, your hospital will give you advice about looking after your hip or knee at home. You may need to use a frame or crutches at first and a physiotherapist will teach you exercises to help strengthen your hip muscles.

Further information:

FAQs orthopedics:

Spinal surgery

Lumbar decompression surgery is the most common spinal operation. It is a type of surgery used to treat compressed nerves in the lower (lumbar) spine.

It's only recommended when non-surgical treatments haven't helped. 

The surgery aims to improve symptoms such as persistent pain and numbness in the legs caused by pressure on the nerves in the spine.

Lumbar decompression surgery is used to treat:

  • spinal stenosis – narrowing of a section of the spinal column, which puts pressure on the nerves inside

  • slipped disc and sciatica – where a damaged spinal disc presses down on an underlying nerve

  • spinal injuries – such as a fracture or the swelling of tissue

  • metastatic spinal cord compression – where cancer in one part of the body, such as the lungs, spreads into the spine and presses on the spinal cord or nerves

You'll usually be well enough to leave hospital about 1 to 4 days after having surgery, depending on the complexity of the surgery and your level of mobility before the operation.

Most people are able to walk unassisted within a day of having the operation, although more strenuous activities will need to be avoided for about 6 weeks.

You may be able to return to work after about 4 to 6 weeks, although you may need more time off if your job involves driving for long periods or lifting heavy objects.F

Further information: spinal surgery explained


There are umber of medical treatments and surgical procedures that can be offered to aliviate or cure gynae conditions. After an intial consultation your doctor will provide information, and maybe order further tests to establish a diagnose. If you need a procedure or an operation, that may require general anaesthesia. Please find below the main perioperative characteristic of different surgical procedures.
Further information: multiple procedures explained


The Anaesthetist involved in your case will discuss the anaesthetic with you and check your medical history. The type of anaesthetic patients receive, and whether this is purely a General Anaesthetic or sedation or a Local Anaesthetic / nerve block or a combination of these techniques, depends on several factors including the type of surgical procedure, concurrent medical conditions and the preferences of the patient, the anaesthetist and the surgeon. Please feel free to clarify any issues you may want to discuss about your anaesthetic with the anaesthetist.

As with all medical procedures anaesthetics entail risks, side effects and complications. The vast majority of patients, however, undergo anaesthetics with no problems. Common side effects include post-operative nausea and vomiting, shivering, sore throat, damage to lips, tongue or teeth and bruising or pain at injection sites.

Local Anaesthetic nerve blocks sometimes result in prolonged nerve block or symptoms caused by irritation or damage to the nerve. Specific complications relating to your procedure will generally be discussed with you prior to your operation, particularly if you are having a nerve block.

Information for patients about Anaesthetics is available in leaflets produced by the Royal College of Anaesthetists.


To access these leaflets please click on the links below:

Anaesthesia Explained:

You and Your Anaesthetic: and your anaesthetic

Sedation Explained: explained

Risks Associated with Anaesthetics:

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